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supporting an argument; identifying central ideas and supporting details
You may print and copy the activity or have students complete it on their computers or tablets. Click here for instructions for using writable and interactive PDFs.
Our self-guided activity sheet makes essay writing a painless process. Great for homework!
Using transitions effectively is a key—and often challenging—writing skill. Our handout gives students ideas on how to choose the perfect transition word or phrase.
Go deeper into this debate with these discussion questions:
Is the author biased in the presentation of information?
What message is the cartoonist sending?
Which side of the debate does the cartoonist support?
How do the headings connect to the title?
How does the author structure the information in the article?
Core Skill Review
Use this activity as a midyear review of this key skill. Click here to learn more about our Core Skills Program.
See how this text will challenge your students.
Levels of Meaning/Purpose
The article has a clear purpose—to present arguments for and against schools adopting earlier start times.
The article contains cause/effect and compare/contrast structures; arguments for and against the debate topic are woven throughout the text.
Language Conventionality and Clarity
Vocabulary: Some higher-level academic vocabulary (e.g., circadian rhythm, nonprofit, invest)
Most students will find the subject matter very accessible, though it is helpful to have some knowledge of the science of sleep, the effects of sleep deprivation, and the sleep cycle. It is also helpful to have an understanding of school districts and bussing.
Skills and Standards
Common Core ELA Anchor Standards: R1, R2, R4, R5, R6, R8, W1, W4, W5, W9, SL1, L1
NCTE/IRA: 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 11, 12